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#31 - Wysłana: 13 Wrz 2016 15:02:40 - Edytowany przez: Q__
To było o fazerach ręcznych, teraz będzie o zainstalowanych na Ent-D:



Even before the development of true interstellar spacecraft by various cultures, it was clear that directed-energy devices would be necessary to assist in clearing gas, dust, and micrometeoroid material from vehicle flight paths. Emerging space-faring races are continuing to employ this method as an excellent maximizer of shipboard energy budgets, because a relatively small energy expenditure produces a large result. Material in space can be vaporized, ionized, and eliminated as a hazard to spaceflight. It did not take an enormous leap of imagination, of course, to realize that directed energy could also prove to be an effective weapon system.
The lead defensive system maintained by Starfleet Command for sublight use for the last century is the phaser, the common term for a complicated energy release process developed to replace pure EM devices such as the laser, and particle beam accelerators. Phaser is something of a holdover acronym, PHASed Energy Rectification, referring to the original process by which stored or supplied energy entering the phaser system was converted to another form for release toward a target, without the need for an intermediate energy transformation. This remains essentially true in the current phaser effect.
Phaser energy is released through the application of the rapid nadion effect (RNE). Rapid nadions are short-lived subatomic particles possessing special properties related to high-speed interactions within atomic nuclei. Among these properties is the ability to liberate and transfer strong nuclear forces within a particular class of superconducting crystals known as fushigi-no-umi. The crystals were so named when it appeared to researchers at Starfleet's Tokyo R&D facility that the materials being developed represented a virtual "sea of wonder' before them.

As installed in the Galaxy class, the main ship's phasers are rated as Type X, the largest emitters available for starship use. Individual emitter segments are capable of directing 5.1 megawatts. By comparison, the small personal phasers issued to Starfleet crew members are Type I and II, the latter being limited to 0.01MW. Certain large dedicated planetary defense emitters are designated as Type X+, as their exact energy output remains classified. The Galaxy class supports twelve phaser arrays in two sizes, located on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as two arrays for lateral coverage.
A typical large phaser array aboard the USS Enterprise, such as the upper doral array on the Saucer Module, consists of two hundred emitter segments in a dense linear arrangement for optimal control of firing order, thermal effects, field halos, and target impact. Groups of emitters are supplied by redundant sets of energy feeds from the primary trunks of the electro plasma system (EPS), and are similarly interconnected by fire control, thermal management, and sensor lines. The visible hull surface configuration of the phaser is a long shallow raised strip, the bulk of the hardware submerged within the vehicle frame.
In cross section, the phaser array takes on a thickened Y shape, capped with a trapezoidal mass of the actual emitter crystal and phaser- transparent hull antierosion coatings. The base of an array segment sits within a structural honeycomb channel of duranium 235 and supplied with supersonic regenerative LN(low 2 [assuming Liquid Nitrogen]) cooling. The complete channel is thermally isolated by eight hundred link struts to the tritanium vehicle frame.
The first stage of the array segments is the EPS submaster flow regulator, the principal mechanism controlling phaser power levels for firing. The flow regulator leads into the plasma distribution manifold (PDM), which branches into two hundred supply conduits to an equal number of prefire chambers. The final stage of the system is the phaser emitter crystal.

Upon receiving the command to fire, the EPS submaster flow regulator manages the energetic plasma powering the phaser array through a series of physical irises and magnetic switching gates. Iris response is 0.01 seconds and is used for gross adjustments in plasma distribution; magnetic gate response is 0.0003 seconds and is employed for rapid fine-tuning of plasma routing within small sections of an array. Normal control of all irises and gates is affected through the autonomic side of the phaser function command processor, coordinated with the Threat assessment/tracking/targeting system (TA/T/TS). The regulator is manufactured from combined-crystal sonodanite, solenogyn, and rabium tritonide, and lined with a 1.2 cm layer of paranygen animide to provide structural surface protection.
Energy is conveyed from each flow regulator to the PDM, a secondary computer-controlled valving device at the head end of each prefire chamber. The manifold is a single crystal boronite solid, and is machined by phaser cutters. The prefire chamber is a sphere of LiCu 518 reinforced with wound hafnium tritonide, which is gamma-welded. It is within the prefire chamber that energy from the plasma undergoes the handoff and initial EM spectrum shift associated with the rapid nadion effect (RNE). The energy is confined for between 0.05 and 1.3 nanoseconds by a collapsible charge barrier before passing to the LiCu 518 emitter for discharge. The action of raising and collapsing the charge barrier forms the required pulse for the RNE. The power level commanded by the system or voluntarily set by the responsible officer determines the relative proportion of protonic charge that will be created and pulse frequency in the final emitter stage.

The trifaceted crystal that constitutes the final discharge stage is formed from LiCu 518 and measures 3.25 x 2.45 x 1.25 meters for a single segment. The crystal lattice formula used in the forced-matrix process is Li>>:Si::Fe>:>:O. The collimated energy beam exits one or more of the facets, depending on which prefire chambers are being pumped with plasma. The segment firing order, as controlled by the phaser function command processor, together with facet discharge direction, determines the final beam vector.
Energy from all discharged segments passes directionally over neighboring segments due to force coupling, converging on the release point, where the beam will emerge and travel at c to the target. Narrow beams are created by rapid segment order firing; wider fan or cone beams result from slower firing rates. Wide beams are, of course, prone to marked power loss per unit area covered.
#32 - Wysłana: 13 Wrz 2016 15:05:00 - Edytowany przez: Q__

In their primary defensive application, the ship's phaser arrays land single or multiple beams upon a target in an attempt to damage the target structure, sometimes to complete destruction. As with other Starfleet- developed hardware, the Type X phaser is highly adaptable to a variety of situations, from active low-energy scans to high-velocity ship-to-ship combat operations.
The exact performance of most phaser firings is determined by an extensive set of practical and theoretical scenarios stored within the main computers. Artificial intelligence routines shape the power levels and discharge behaviors of the phaser arrays automatically, once specific commands are given by responsible officers to act against designated targets.
Low-energy operations provide a valuable direct method of transferring ship's energy for a variety of controlled applications, such as active sensor scanning. In high-energy weapon firings, several interrelated computer systems work to place the beam on the target, all within a few milliseconds. Long- and short-range sensor scans provide target information to the Threat assessment/tracking/targeting system (TA/T/TS), which drives the phaser arrays with the best target coverage. Multiple targets are prioritized and acted upon in order. The maximum effective tactical range of ship's phasers is 300,000 kilometers.
Targets protected by defensive EM shields and surface absorptive- ablative coatings may still be dealt with, but with a commensurate increase in power to defeat the shields. Phasers may be fired one-way through the ship's own shields due to EM polarization, with a small acceptable drag force penalty at the inner shield interface.
Threat vessels will be encountered with a wide variety of shields that act upon phaser emissions to reduce their effectiveness; the type most often confronted spreads the beam cross section, redirecting the energy around the shields and back into space. Higher power levels will usually overburden the shields and allow the phaser to hit the target directly, although more sophisticated adversaries possess highly resistant shield generators. It has been the experience of some starship tactical officers that rapid-firing volleys at different parts of a shield bubble can weaken it. The phaser arrays on a Galaxy class ship are located to achieve maximum beam dwell time on a target.
Generally speaking, regardless of the actual beam type, pulse or continuous, or the specific Threat situation, the most effective tactic is to maintain contact between the beam and the Threat shield or physical hull. Computer sequencing of the arrays will always attempt to expose the target, even while the arrays are recharging. Conversely, the best tactics for minimizing disabling return phaser fire are to present the smallest visible ship cross section to the Threat weapons, and continue changing attitude so as to deny the beams any sites on which to inflict concentrated energies.
In Cruise Mode, all phaser arrays receive their primary power from the warp reaction chamber, with supplementary fusion power from the impulse engine systems. Recharge times are kept to < 0.5 seconds. Full power firing endurance is rated at ~45 minutes. In Separated Flight Mode, the Saucer Module is cut off from the main electro plasma system, and it must then rely on increased fusion generator output to power the arrays. Recharge times can be maintained at < 0.5 seconds, but firing endurance drops to <15 minutes at full power. Survival during crises depends on the understanding by Tactical officers of the constraints of both modes.
The actual number of variables involved in spacecraft defense can be staggering and would quickly overwhelm any manual efforts to adequately protect a starship. While ship-to-ship operations may seem as simple as pointing and shooting, computers and semiautonomous weapon systems are the accepted standards, driven by the realities of the spaceflight regime. In the total Starfleet history of armed spacecraft, over 3,500 unique spacecraft combat maneuvers (SCMs) have been recorded, too numerous to present more than a tiny fraction in detail (see descriptions following). Since combat conditions can change within seconds, high-speed calculations and tactical choices will also change rapidly. General result-oriented firing and movement orders from command personnel are translated by the main computers and scripted into "trees" of possible sequences, along with a prioritization of the best paths for the current time, and influenced by the predictions of Threat assessment routines.
As with the navigation system, which is directly linked to the tactical system within the main computers, phaser algorithms take two distinct forms, baseline code and self-rewritable code. Both code types cover all known advantages and weaknesses of Threat vessels, including simulated adversaries used for training purposes, and analysis routines for new Threat types. The rewritable symbolic code performs primarily high-speed autonomic functions related to the defense of the Enterprise, quickly reacting to danger from outside and repairing internal damage. Only 10% of the rewritable code is needed for weapon fire control routines; they are fairly straightforward and are complicated only by firing sequences, precise timings, and unusual targeting requirements. All stored rewritable code is routinely transferred to Starfleet Headquarters and remote sites by secure means for high-level analysis.

The following three cleared excerpts from the overall Starfleet SCM database (Starfleet Combat Maneuver) describe general Galaxy class ship maneuver variations utilizing Type X phaser banks only. Photon torpedo firings in combination with phasers are treated as specialized SCMs.


Two vessel scenario, low sublight, < 0.01c relative, < 0.01c absolute, Cruise Mode. Romulan Warbird Threat vessel (mobile), closes on Galaxy class (stationary) along bearing 0°, ą10°, mark 0°, range ~5000 km. Threat vessel discharges 20 GW phaser pulses toward Galaxy class. Galaxy class shields energize within 550 ns to minimum phaser dispersion level, rise to full within 2,000 ns. Galaxy class maneuvers to minimum aspect on thruster or impulse power if possible. General return fire procedure, if implemented: Determine Threat passing side, yaw Galaxy class through same direction at matching rate minus 15%, pitch to 5° relative to Threat XY centerline, auto-adjust Galaxy class YZ plane. PROG 532 sequential follow-fire arrays: Upper Forward Main, Lower Forward Main, P/S Lateral, Upper Aft Main.


Three vessel scenario, high sublight, <0.02c relative, <.75c absolute, Cruise Mode. Ferengi Marauder Threat vessels (mobile), closes on Galaxy class (mobile) along bearings 240° and 120°, ą10°, marks 40° and 280°, range ~800 km. Threat vessels simultaneously discharge 500 MW electro plasma waves toward Galaxy class. Galaxy class shields fully energized, reactive outboard pulsing to hot standby. General return fire procedure, if implemented: Determine Threat evasive pattern, maintain Galaxy class relative attitude centerline divided between both Threat vessels. Yaw 90° to combined plasma wavefront if possible prior to phaser discharge. PROG 14 continuous fire arrays: Upper Aft Main, Lower Aft Main, P/S Lateral.


Two vessel scenario, mid-sublight, <0.001c relative, <0.60c absolute, Separated Flight Mode, Saucer Module only. Cardasian Enhanced Penetrator Threat vessel (mobile), exchanges fire with Galaxy class (mobile) along bearing 280°, mark 300°, range 15 km at closest approach. Galaxy class shields fully energized, reactive outboard pulsing to full active. General return fire procedure, if implemented: Predict table of possible Threat trajectories and attach required targeting vectors. Break 45°-Z/30° +X to present maximum number of ventral array elements to Threat. PROG 3401 pulsed fire, broad spectrum to blind Threat sensors: Lower Main Aft, P/S Lateral. Follow with PROG 245 continuous fire, narrow spectrum: Lower Aft Main, P/S Lateral.

Virtually all phaser-related scenarios deal with at sublight starship velocities, and for good reason. Space vessels operating at warp are protected, to a large degree, simply by the limitations of lightspeed physics. Phaser energy dissipates quickly in the vicinity of moving warp fields, especially when those fields are accompanied by active deflectors. This remains true even if the targets are motionless relative to each other (in comparison, subspace emission devices such as tractor beams and transporters are less adversely affected). Computational simulations suggest that an extremely narrow Type X phaser discharge, if released at full power and aligned along an oncoming target's velocity vector, has a 25% chance of disrupting the target's hull integrity. Other position and velocity combinations are subjects of continued research, since some small tactical advantages may yet be extracted for future use.

#33 - Wysłana: 16 Mar 2017 17:41:54 - Edytowany przez: Q__
Jeszcze a propos:
Kelvin type ma wysuwane zarówno działka, jak i wyrzutnie

Warto przypomnieć, że nie jest to gwałt na kanonie, a kontynuacja kanonu - z ENT. Popatrzmy na stosowną scenkę:

A potem przyjrzyjmy się z bliska:

Co prawda nie są to fazery, a pre-fezery, ale trend technologiczny logicznie rozwijany:
#34 - Wysłana: 30 Lis 2018 19:06:09
Classic Science-Fiction Television Hand Props!
#35 - Wysłana: 15 Maj 2019 01:14:49
Rozważania o tym, dlaczego GF woli fazery od dyzruptorów:
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